HISTORIC BARN TYPES
Because farmers have traditionally remodeled or combined barns over the years to suit their needs and tastes, it is often a challenge to recognize these basic types today. There are also other types of historic barns and specialty outbuildings found on many Vermont farms. Consider this guide a starting point.
English Barns (before the 1770s to 1900s)
Vermont's early farmers built their barns based on a traditional barn design that the original colonists brought with them from England. The basic design remained popular for smaller barns throughout the nineteenth century. Measuring about thirty feet by forty feet with a pair of large, hinged wagon doors on the long side and unpainted vertical boards on the walls, the English barn usually stood on a level site without a basement. Inside these barns were divided into a center drive and threshing floor (onto which the pair of doors open) with hay and grain storage on one side and animal stables on the other.
Yankee Barn (1820s to 1870s)
By the mid-1800s, many farmers adopted a new design for their barns which allowed them to house up to ten cows and shifted the main entrance to the gable end. Inside the center drive floor followed the ridge of the roof with cow stables in a row on one side and hay storage on the other. Usually built into a hillside so that manure could be pushed into and stored in a basement below, these barns could be expanded by adding additional bays to the rear. To reduce winter drafts, farmers rejected traditional vertical board siding in favor of tighter board-and-batten, clapboard or shingle sheathings. They soon found that rooftop ventilators were needed for fresh air and windows for light.
Sheep Barn (1820s to 1870s)
Prior to the era of dairying, sheep were the most widespread livestock raised on Vermont farms. Older barns were either adapted to shelter sheep or new barns were built. These barns typically consist of two levels and may be built into a bank. Sheep were housed on ground floor which opened to a fenced pasture with a southern exposure.
Late Bank Barns (1870s to 1900s)
Those farmers specializing in dairying soon needed space for more than ten cows, and many built huge multi-storied bank barns to house cattle and other livestock and to store winter forage and grain for them. At the uphill gable end, a covered bridge or "high-drive" often provided access for wagons to the upper hayloft. Cow stables with rows of wooden stanchions are in the story below, with manure stored in the basement. Most late bank barns are sheathed with clapboards and have elaborate wooden ventilator cupolas, often topped by decorative weathervanes.
Horse /Carriage Barns (1850s to 1910s)
In addition to the main barn, many farms also utilized a number of supporting barns and outbuildings. The horse or carriage barn is one such example. Though earlier examples exist horse or carriage barns became increasingly popular during 1860’s and 1870’s as horses replaced oxen on farms. Many of these barns contain a granary for storing feed and cupola to increase ventilation. Other elements common to the horse or carriage barn is the presence of small windows indicating stalls, gable entrance with hay door in upper floor, and greater level of architectural embellishment as most of these barns were built by more affluent farmers.
Ground Stable Barns (1910s to 1950s)
After 1910 government health regulations for the production and handling of fluid milk required new barn designs. Agricultural college experiment stations promoted the gambrel-roofed, ground stable barn design, which was widely adopted throughout the country. These barns housed cows on a washable concrete floor in steel pipe stanchions at ground level. The gambrel roof made an ample hayloft and could be erected with pre-fabricated trusses. Ducts from steel ventilators atop the roof provided fresh air for the cows, and long rows of small windows gave light to the stable area. A small, milk house was usually attached to the building.